Panay Watershed Case Study
Case studies are excellent learning materials for watershed managers in particular and stakeholders in general. They convey a particular management perspective which could start a discussion and produce insights into day to day or structural problems of a watershed.
As part of the organizing effort, watershed cases were developed by each province and shared with the rest of the island stakeholders. This section presents 5 watershed cases from Panay Island.
1. Aklan Rivers Watershed case study
2. Pan ay Rivers Watershed case study
3. Sibalom San Jose Rivers Watershed case study
4. Tigum Aganan Rivers Watershed case study
1. Aklan is located in the northwestern portion of Panay Island. It is bounded on the south by Capiz, east by the Sibuyan Sea, west by Antique, the northwest by Sulu Sea, and on the northeast by Sibuyan Sea. It is cadastrally located between latitude 11˚09’30” N and latitude 12˚01’00” N, and longitude 122˚34’45” (PAG-ASA). The northernmost limit of Aklan is
Lapuz-Lapuz in Boracay Island (Malay), while the southernmost limit is the point in the Municipality of Libacao where the borders of Aklan, Antique, and Capiz meet. The easternmost part of the province is the eastern shoreline of Barangay Mambuquiao in the municipality of Batan; the westernmost part is Pucio Point in the municipality of Buruanga. Read more
2. Capiz is one of the six (6) provinces of Western Visayas located at the north eastern portion of
Panay Island; bounded on the north by the Sibuyan Sea; by the provinces of Iloilo on the south
and southeast; by Aklan on the west and northwest; and by Antique on the southwest. It has 16
municipalities and one City (Roxas City – the provincial capital); 473 barangays (villages) the
country’s smallest political subdivision and 2 Congressional Districts(1st and 2nd districts).The total land area is 263,317hectares. It is 13% of Western Visayas Region and 0.9% of the country’s total land area. The alienable and disposable land is 169,547 hectares (64.39%). 93,770 hectares (35.61%)is classified as public timberland.The total population is 701,664 as of 2007 census of population (male-352,867 andfemale- 348,797). The population density is 266/sq. km. The 2011 projected population is 729,287 at an average annual growth rate of 0.97%.Roxas City airport is 45 minutes flight from Manila and served by Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific. Read more
3. The Province of Antique is one of six provinces of Western Visayas and is located in the western portion of Panay Island in Central Philippines. Of its total land area of 252,200 hectares, 83% are upland and 17% are lowland. Its total coastline is estimated at 311 kilometers. This rugged landscape is crisscrossed with fifteen major river systems that originate from the Central and Northern Panay Mountain Ranges Because of this physical make up, Antique is popularly known as the province where the mountains meet the sea. However, this rugged yet majestic landscape also makes the province prone to landslides and flooding along river basins. The frequency and magnitude of these disasters have increased in past few years and is attributed by most on the degradation of the environment, especially of the upland areas. Read more
4. TigumAganan Watershed is located in Panay Island at the province of Iloilo, its upper watershed touching the Antique province and merging with the forest ecosystem in this mountainous area. Its downstream tip crosses the City of Iloilo and channels water to the Guimaras Strait. The province of Iloilo occupies the southern and the north eastern portion of Panay Island. It is bounded by the province of Capiz and Jintotolo channel in the north; Panay Gulf and Iloilo Strait in the South, Visayan sea and Guimaras Strait in the east and the province of Antique in the west. Read more
Selected Watershed Cases of PWMC Members
By Jessica C. Salas
Kahublagan Sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc.
- The points for discussion in the mini-study focused on the integration of socio-economic and environmental issues:
Kahublagan Sang Panimalay Foundation, Inc.This presentation shows the tentative findings of the mini-study. The 20 participants of the mini-study are from the following watersheds:
- 1. Allah Valley
- 2. Busol Watershed
- 3. Maasin Watershed
- 4. Lake Lanao Watershed
- 5. Lake Lanao, Agus River Watershed
- 6. Lower Magat Watershed
- 7. Buayan Watershed
- 8. North Negros Forest
- 9. Isarog Watershed
- 10. Buhisan Watershed
- 11. Abatan Watershed
- 12. Palompon Watershed
- 13. lloilo Watersheds
- 14. Bukidnon Watersheds
- 15. San Carlos City Watersheds
- 16. Talomo-Lipadas Watershed
- 17. Loboc Watershed
- 18. Sibalom-Baguingin Watershed
- 19. Kanlaon Mountain Forest Reserve
- 20. Barobob Watershed
- The points for discussion in the mini-study focused on the integration of socio-economic and environmental issues:
- Who is participating? Community on site or upstream-downstream collaboration
- Institutions responsible
- Focus on onsite impact or upstream/downstream adjustments
- Tools used for knowing the watershed - the land-water relationship
- Intervention strategies
With regard to the integration of environmental and socio-economic issues, tentative findings have shown that 10 watershed programmes incorporate sustainable development objectives by committing to providing benefits and services which may not be directly related to natural resource management; 7 benefits and services embedded in broader sustainable development process such as local government development plan; and 2 are not certain.
In terms of who are participating, the results showed that 10 watershed plans focus on community or people's participation; 7 watershed plans focus on broad sector involvement and participation of upstream-downstream communities; and 2 are not certain. The participants were natural resource users, those with decision-making capacity and responsibility, and people/sectors with conflicting interests.
Tentative findings on the institutions responsible identified that 7 watersheds are run by heavy institutions; 12 cases are run by light institutions, and data regarding cases taking sides with the upland and rural poor in local political exercises (their voices not often heard), cases engaged in awareness raising on particular issues, and cases advocating for legal and legislative actions to define and accommodate contrasting resource claims and rights are still processed.
With regard to focus on onsite impact or upstream/downstream adjustments, the findings revealed that 9 watersheds focus on short term effects, small scale projects with little watershed coordination; 9 watersheds focus on upstream-downstream linkages and long-term impacts with local level processes coordinated at watershed or at basin level; and 1 case is uncertain.
The tools used for knowing the watershed (and-water relationship) indicated that 5 cases started with Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) with no linkage to natural and sociological evidence; 5 cases initiated dialogue between local and scientific knowledge, action research processes involving a variety of stakeholders; and 9 cases were uncertain.
The Allah Valley is located in the Provinces of South Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat. Its total delineated area is 252,034 hectares that extends to the Province of Maguindanao. Surface waters that are drained along the Allah and Banga rivers subsequently find their way into the Liguasan marsh, the second largest in the country. The AVL is a major sub-watershed unit of the Cotabato-Agusan river basin in Mindanao. It covers the LGU jurisdictions of the Province of South Cotabato (Municipalities of Lake Sebu, T‟boli, Surallah, and Sto. Nino, Banga, Norala) and Province of Sultan Kudarat (City of Tacurong and Municipalities of Isulan, Esperanza, Lambayong, Bagumbayan). The river valley and mid-stream section of the watershed support agricultural production for rice, corn, banana, pineapple and oil palm. The National Irrigation Administration (NIA) is tapping about 1.5 billion cu.m. of surface water to supply the water requirements of 27,000 hectares irrigated ricefields…..Read more… Allah Valley
Busol Forest Reservation. The Busol Forest Reservation is located in the province of Benguet particularly in the Municipality of La Trinidad and Baguio City. The watershed has a total area of 336 hectares, of which 66% or 224 hectares belonged to La Trinidad, Benguet and 33% or 112 hectares belonged to the City of Baguio. The watershed provides 30% of Baguio City’s water supply while 20% for La Trinidad’s. The forest cover is 29% or 99 hectares while non-forest cover is 71% or 237 hectares. Its potential yield is 2,916 gallons per minute and water discharge is 920 gallons per minute. …..Read more… Busol
The Maasin Watershed. The Maasin watershed comprises 6,150 hectares that forms the upland section of the larger Tigum-Aganan watershed subgroup. Although it represents only 1/5th of the Tigum-Aganan watershed, the influence that it exerts is vital to the overall stability and productivity of the watershed. Maasin watershed is home to 49 barangays, which is less than 10% of the total Barangay population of the larger Tigum-Aganan watershed. The Maasin Watershed Forest Reserve is the single most important source of domestic water supply for Iloilo City and the neighboring towns (about 500,000 population). Maasin Watershed is the head water of the Tigum River and that the Tigum River joins the Aganan River and form into Jaro River which passes through the city and out to the Guimaras strait and the Visayas Sea. The Tigum-Aganan Watershed was delineated and 8 municipalities and 1 city joined hands in trying to figure out what can be done to improve the lot of downstream population which depend so much on the activities and development of the Maasin Watershed. …..Read more… Maasin
The Lake Lanao Watershed. The Lake Lanao Watershed is located at the heart of Lanao del Sur. It is a home to Meranao people and is the heart of people’s spiritual, cultural, social, political and economic life. The watershed has its greatest influence at the eastern and southeastern part of the basin where the four tributaries, Masiu, Taraka, Gata and Ramain rivers, are found . The vast riceland of the Basak area is located on this section of the watershed. The southern, western and northern sections have lesser influence on the Lake system . The Agus River is the only outlet of the Lake. Lake Lanao is vital to the economic development of the communities around its shorelines, the island of Mindanao and the entire country, being the major source of hydroelectric power. Its water drives the turbines of NPCs Agus grid hydroelectric power plants supplying between 55 – 65 percent of the total electricity needs of the people of Mindanao. Lake Lanao is solely utilized to drive the turbines of NPCs hydroelectric power plants supplying between 55 – 65 percent of the total electricity needs of the people of Mindanao. . …..Read more… Lake Lanao
The Lake Lanao-Agus River Watershed is the official name of the watershed located in the provinces of Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and Region 10, respectively. It is bounded on the north by the Municipality of Kapai and Iligan de Bay; on the East by the municipalities of Wao and Bumbaran; the Gurain Mountain ranges on the West; Butig and Pipayongan mountain ranges on the South. the Lake Lanao-Agus River Watershed cover the Municipalities of Ramain Ditsaan, Bubong, Buadi-Puso Buntong, Mulundo, Taraka, Maguing, Tamaparan, Lumba-Bayabao, Poona-Bayabao, Masiu, Butig, Lumbatan, Madamaba, Bacolod-Kalawi, Tugaya, Balindong, Marantao, Piagapo, Saguiaran and Marawi City all in Lanao del Sur and the Municipalities of Pantar, Balo-I, Pantao Ragat, Matungao, Lanamon and part of Iligan City in the province of Lanao del Norte with total land area of 193,440 hectares. Hydropower generation, irrigation, and domestic uses make Lake Lanao a national interest resource. Agus River, being the only outlet of hosts the 6 hydro-electric power plants operating the maximum total capacity of 727.35 megawatts big enough to contribute 50% to 70 % of the total electricity need of island of Mindanao. Agus River is linked with Ma. Cristina Falls that regularly draw many tourists. Aside from the domestic use of the community around the lake, the watershed is the source of irrigation for 59,468 hectares of agricultural with rice, corn, fruits and vegetables as its major products that supply the whole province and the rest of the region. . …..Read more… Lake Lanao-Agus
The Lower Magat Forest Reserve. The 30,000 hectare forest reserve is an integral part of the Magat watershed which is key support environment for the Magat dam in Ramon, Isabela. The dam system irrigates around 85,000 hectares of rice lands benefiting 62,000 families in the southern and central plains of Isabela Province. The upstream watershed areas is shared by the Provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, where around 60% of watershed area is found . Thirty-three percent (33%) of the area is under the jurisdiction of the Province of Ifugao, which contributes significant discharge from the Ibulao river sytem. . …..Read more… Lower Magat
The Buayan River Basin Watershed is located within the northern portion of Sarangani Province towards its boundary in South Cotabato, part of Davao del Sur in the eastern and southwestern in General Santos City. Watershed conditions are in an alarming state with, 56,031 hectares or 40% of the entire watershed considered highly erodible. Forest lands have receded into grassland conditions, covering 77,000 hectares or 54% of the total area. 10,000 hectares or 7% closed canopy forest mixed with forest plantation are sparsely scattered in the watershed vital in the soil, water and biodiversity conservation. An estimated 680 million gallons/day of water is discharged to Sarangani Bay Protected Seascape (SBPS) during peak flow which cause flash flooding downstream with an average of 2,694 tons of sediments per day (SMICZM Reports).
The Mt. Matutum upper catchments serve as river tributaries that provide water to 13,000 hectares Agro-industrial farm of DOLE Philippines and Primetown. It also supports the water requirements for recreational uses and prawn farms and the domestic water supply for residential and commercial establishments. The catchments also hosts a total of 23,000 hectares Alienable and Disposable (A&D) lands potential for sustainable agriculture development. At least 1,500 hectares part of Mt. Matutum Protected Landscape (MMPL) carries the potential for ecotourism. It also hosts the 84,000 hectares CADC of the B‟laan and Tagakaolo tribes and habitat of Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta). The Biangan Gabion Revetment and spur dike structures and Upper Buayan check dam provide water regulation functions. Upland productivity measures were also instituted with 750 hectares agroforesty and reforestation project established under the Southern Mindanao Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project (SMICZMP). . …..Read more… Buayan
Northern Negros Natural Park. The Northern Negros Natural Park is the largest watershed of the province being the main source of water for 17 municipalities and cities in Central and Northern Negros. It has a total land area of 80,454.50 hectares and considered the largest remaining forest in the island of Negros; however, in 2001 the remaining forest cover was reduced to only 22,288.81 hectares. It is home to some critically-endangered and threatened birds, mammals, several species of reptiles and amphibians and many species of butterflies and insects. . …..Read more… NorthNegros
Mount Isarog National Park (MINP). The Mount Isarog National Park is the a major landmark in the Bicol Peninsula. It is a home to 143 species of birds and 3,000 species of wild plants. It supplies potable and irrigable water to 15 municipalities and 67,400 hectares of farm, respectively, surrounding the Mount Isarog National Park (MINP). It has 16 major rivers and waterfalls that make it a potential ecotourism attraction in Bicol Region. The Mt. Isarog National Park is governed by the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act. The Protected Area Management Board for the MINP functions with 34 regular members sitting en banc. The park receives protection services from a cadre of bantay-gubat volunteers popularly known as MIGs or Mt. Isarog Guardians, a volunteer group created by the PAMB. The volunteers are deployed in the 22 barangays along the forest-edge communities of MINP. The MIGs also serve as guides in areas with ecotourism assets. . …..Read more… Isarog
Buhisan River Watershed. The Buhisan River Watershed is the lifeline of the Buhisan Dam, which has provided part of Metro Cebu’s domestic water requirements since 1912. Its blanket of legal protection is provided from the 1911 Executive Order, RA 7986, and RA 9486. However, beneath this veneer of legal protection, are recurring human ecological issues, that require a mix of both developmental and enforcement measures. The watershed is getting a new treatment as an eco-tourism destination under the auspices of the Buhisan Watershed Integrated Development Program. The watershed continues to provide five percent of the water supply requirements of the Metro Cebu Water District (MCWD). It currently contributes an average of 5,000 cu.m/day during the wet season and 400 cu.m./day during the dry months. Buhisan River and its tributaries drain into already heavily silted Buhisan Dam. Storage capacity is down to 56% of its design capacity. . …..Read more… Buhisan
Abatan Watershed. The Abatan Watershed is one of the 11 watershed networks that support the island province of Bohol. It covers some 36,540 hectares or close to 9% of the provinces total land area in three distinct situations – coastal, lowland and upland. It is geographically contiguous to the Mualong Watershed on the southwest and the Wahig-Inabanga and the Loboc Watersheds on the north and east, respectively. It occupies practically 110 barangays in thirteen (13) municipalities. These municipalities have a combined population of 53,596 households or approximately 256,943 individuals (source: Poverty Data Monitoring System, 2004-2006). Its main drainage system is the Abatan River that provides freshwater to the Maribojoc Bay. This river serves as the natural boundary between Maribojoc and Cortes, Antequera and Balilihan, and San Isidro and Catigbian. The watershed also provides as habitat to other wildlife such as the Philippine tarsier, python and cobra. Indigenous plants still abound as source of raw materials for handicrafts such as nito, sig-id, banban, biliisan, and sagisi.Its abundant mineral resources like limestone, guano, sand and gravel, clay soil, rock phosphate,has attracted legions of prospectors and mining activities. The ecosystem continuum of the watershed extends to the marshlands which serve as feeding and breeding ground for endemic and migratory birds. The mangrove forest remains in good conditions with at least 17 known species. The whole stretch of Abatan River exhibit good physical qualities conditions despite heavy metal contamination predominantly by cadmium and lead. . …..Read more… Abatan
Palompon Watershed Forest Reserve. The Palompon Watershed Forest Reserve is situated in the eastern part of the municipality of Palompon, Leyte bounded by the Municipalities of Matag-ob and Merida, Leyte. It has a total area of 2,392 hectares covering 9 barangays namely: San Miguel, Tinubdan, Caduhaan, Hinagbuan, Liberty, Santiago, Tinago, Mabini and Cambacbac. The catchment and its tributaries supply water to the said host municipalities. Lots of springs also can be found in the area that augment to the supply of water. What used to be dominated by dipterocarp stands, has been replaced by second growth and pioneer species like anislag. To some extent, climax species like Tugas and Narra along stream banks can still be spotted. Plantation species like Gmelina, Mahogany and Acacia cover extensive areas and are now potential sources of planting stocks . In terms of wildlife resources, monkeys, foxes, bats, and various species of birds. have been observed in Barangays Tinubdan and Liberty. There are also some accounts of tarsier in the area. . …..Read more… Palompon
Bukidnon Watershed Network. The Bukidnon Province is composed of six major rivers in Mindanao: Pulangui, Tagoloan, Cagayan, Maridugao, Agusan Cugman and Davao Salug. These rivers and tributaries drain into four provinces, provinces of Davao del Sur, Misamis Oriental, and Lanao Del Norte & Agusan del Sur. Bukidnon has a total land area of 829,378 hectares covering two cities and 20 municipalities. It has a total population of about 1.3 million (based on NSO Census 2007) including indigenous communities of Talaandig, Higaonon, Bukidnon, Umayamnon, Matigslug, Manobo, and Tigwahanon. The six major rivers of Bukidnon are the major sources of water for 1.3 million people, 16 Agro-industries(Multi-national Corp.) & 32,382 hectares irrigated lands, 145,434 hectares annual and perennial croplands, 191 poultry’s & piggeries & hydro-electric power generations of NAPOCOR that generates 255MW 30% of the power demand in Mindanao, Bobonawan Power Company and First Gen Power Corporation. Its forests provide the habitat of 996 endangered species that can be found in the protected areas of Mt. Kalatungan & Mt. Kitanglad , stretching to Mt. Tangkulan, Mt. Saldab, Mt. Tago Range, and the Pantaron Mt. Ranges. In addition to water and the biodiversity assets which the watersheds of Bukidnon are richly endowed, the mountains provide natural recreation like trekking and mountain climbing. . …..Read more… Bukidnon
Talomo-Lipadas Watershed. The Talomo River headwaters are at the rim of the Mount Talomo crater, an elevation of 2,400 meters in the Apo Range. The drainage basin covers an area of 20,700 has. There are 26 barangays located in the Talomo Watershed covering the districts of Calinan, Baguio and Tugbok. Like the Talomo River, the Lipadas River runs the flank of Mount Talomo. The Lipadas River, however, starts from within the crater, which has an opening on the northeast side. The drainage basin covers an area of 17,500 has. There are 27 barangays in the Lipadas Watershed covering the districts of Toril and Talomo. The watershed supplies almost all the ground water for Davao City. Because of agricultural activities such as uncontrolled use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, there is a danger that the aquifer and the surface water may be contaminated with nitrates and phosphates. Experience has shown that nitrates build up to levels that render the water unacceptable for drinking. Fecal coliform from sewage disposal has also been identified as an issue. . …..Read more… Talomo
Loboc Watershed. The Loboc Watershed is the second largest of the 10 watersheds in the province of Bohol. It covers a total of 51,300 hectares of which 38,475 hectares (75%) are considered as uplands. It comprises approximately 12.5% of the total land area of Bohol. It embraces timberlands, well-stocked forested area, karst area and has numerous caves and underground rivers. Most of the land is devoted to agriculture. The mountains yield enormous deposits of non-metallic minerals like limestone, high-grade silica, guano, phosphate rock and manganese. Its lush vegetation is a source of indigenous raw materials like vines and fibers for various industries. It plays host to four (4) protected areas, which are the Loboc Watershed Forest Reserve, Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape, the Chocolate Hills Geological Monument and the Loay-Albur-Loboc Protected Seascape. The watershed is linked with the second longest river system in Bohol that feeds two hydroelectric power generation plants, the Philstarch Corporation, the PALM, Inc., furniture industries and eco-tourism destination sites, among others. The Loboc River is identified to be the potential source of surface water for tapping to support about 16 municipalities in the province. . …..Read more… Loboc
The Iloilo Watershed Management Council, “Working on Ridge-to-Reef Landscapes.” What is perhaps considered a landmark measure, the provincial government of Iloilo passed Ordinance No. 2000-41 creating the Iloilo Watershed Management Council (IMWC) Its mandate is to look into the province’s watersheds and take responsibility for their conservation, development, utilization and protection. The council would also be responsible for creating instruments/ mechanisms that would resolve conflicting interests and balance numerous demands with the carrying capacity of the resource; promoting awareness; and seeking resources to enhance institutional strength, manage weaknesses, and avoid threats to the watershed resources. The Council’s stewardship, is lodged at the office of the Governor ,acting as Chairman. The Council of stewardship peers include the Sangguniang Panlalawigan Committee on Environment, League of Municipalities, City of Iloilo, Iloilo City Sanggunihang Panglungsod Committee on Environment, National Irrigation Administration, Philippine Information Agency, Metro Iloilo Water District, Dept of Public Works and Highways, Dept of Agrarian Reform, Dept of Education, National Economic Development Authority, Philippine National Police, Iloilo Business Club, Kahublagan sang Panimalay Foundation, KAPAWA Maasin, a people organization in Maasin Watershed. The multi-sector board provides a broad local community perspective. It is a potential vehicle for highlighting local knowledge about land and water and culture. . …..Read more… IWMC
The Sibalom-Baguingin Watershed. The Sibalom Watershed is located in the municipalities of Alimodian, Leon, Tigbauan and Tubungan. The size of the catchment is 117 square kilometers. Two upland barangays are clustered within the watershed with a total of 120 households scattered around the 5,500 hectares of timberland area. These barangays are Barangay Danao and Sitio Tabionan, Barangay Bucari. Twenty-three creeks are found in Barangay Danao alone together with a network of several creeks in Sitio Tabionan which contribute significant discharge to Tabionan Creek that serves as major tributary of Sibalom River. The watershed is the source of irrigation to no less than 1,246 farmers covering the total land area of 2,019.20 hectares of farmland. Further downstream, fishponds benefit from the freshwater supplied by Sibalom river and its tributaries. The Mangroves in the coastal section provide sanctuary to marine life and a moderating influence on aquaculture. …..Read more… Sibalom